Section I Use ofEnglish


Read the followingtext. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D onANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

Read the followingtext. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D onANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

The ethicaljudgments of the Supreme Court justices have become an important issuerecently. The court cannot _1_ its legitimacy as guardian of the rule of law_2_ justices behave like politicians. Yet, in several instances, justices actedin ways that _3_ the court’s reputation for being independent and impartial.

Justice AntoninScalia, for example, appeared at political events. That kind of activity makesit less likely that the court’s decisions will be _4_ as impartial judgments.Part of the problem is that the justices are not _5_by an ethics code. At thevery least, the court should make itself _6_to the code of conduct that _7_tothe rest of the federal judiciary.

This and othersimilar cases _8_the question of whether there is still a _9_between the courtand politics.

The framers of theConstitution envisioned law _10_having authority apart from politics. They gavejustices permanent positions _11_they would be free to _12_ those in power andhave no need to _13_ political support. Our legal system was designed to setlaw apart from politics precisely because they are so closely _14_.

Constitutional lawis political because it results from choices rooted in fundamental social _15_like liberty and property. When the court deals with social policy decisions,the law it _16_ is inescapably political-which is why decisions split alongideological lines are so easily _17_ as unjust.

The justices must_18_ doubts about the court’s legitimacy by making themselves _19_ to the codeof conduct. That would make rulings more likely to be seen as separate frompolitics and, _20_, convincing as law.

1. [A]emphasize[B]maintain [C]modify [D] recognize

2. [A]when [B]lest[C]before [D] unless

3. [A]restored[B]weakened [C]established [D] eliminated

4. [A]challenged[B]compromised [C]suspected [D] accepted

5. [A]advanced[B]caught [C]bound [D]founded

6. [A]resistant[B]subject [C]immune [D]prone

7. [A]resorts[B]sticks [C]loads [D]applies

8. [A]evade[B]raise [C]deny [D]settle

9. [A]line[B]barrier [C]similarity [D]conflict

10. [A]by [B]as[C]though [D]towards

11. [A]so [B]since[C]provided [D]though

12. [A]serve[B]satisfy [C]upset [D]replace

13. [A]confirm[B]express [C]cultivate [D]offer

14. [A]guarded[B]followed [C]studied [D]tied

15. [A]concepts[B]theories [C]divisions [D]conceptions

16. [A]excludes[B]questions [C]shapes [D]controls

17. [A]dismissed[B]released [C]ranked [D]distorted

18. [A]suppress [B]exploit[C]address [D]ignore

19. [A]accessible[B]amiable [C]agreeable [D]accountable

20. [A]by allmesns [B]atall costs [C]in a word [D]as a result

Section IIReading Comprehension

Part A


Read the followingfour texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Markyour answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)

Text 1

Come on-Everybody’s doing it. That whispered message, half invitation and halfforcing, is what most of us think of when we hear the words peer pressure. Itusually leads to no good-drinking, drugs and casual sex. But in her new bookJoin the Club, Tina Rosenberg contends that peer pressure can also be apositive force through what she calls the social cure, in which organizationsand officials use the power of group dynamics to help individuals improve theirlives and possibly the word.

Rosenberg, therecipient of a Pulitzer Prize, offers a host of example of the social cure inaction: In South Carolina, a state-sponsored antismoking program called RageAgainst the Haze sets out to make cigarettes uncool. In South Africa, anHIV-prevention initiative known as LoveLife recruits young people to promotesafe sex among their peers.

The idea seemspromisingand Rosenberg is a perceptive observer. Hercritique of the lameness of many pubic-health campaigns is spot-on: they failto mobilize peer pressure for healthy habits, and they demonstrate a seriouslyflawed understanding of psychology.” Dare to be different, please don’t smoke!”pleads one billboard campaign aimed at reducing smoking amongteenagers-teenagers, who desire nothing more than fitting in. Rosenberg arguesconvincingly that public-health advocates ought to take a page fromadvertisers, so skilled at applying peer pressure.

But on the generaleffectiveness of the social cure, Rosenberg is less persuasive. Join the Clubis filled with too much irrelevant detail and not enough exploration of thesocial and biological factors that make peer pressure so powerful. The mostglaring flaw of the social cure as it’s presented here is that it doesn’t workvery well for very long. Rage Against the Haze failed once state funding wascut. Evidence that the LoveLife program produces lasting changes is limited andmixed.

There’s no doubtthat our peer groups exert enormous influence on our behavior. An emerging bodyof research shows that positive health habits-as well as negative ones-spreadthrough networks of friends via social communication. This is a subtle form ofpeer pressure: we unconsciously imitate the behavior we see every day.

Far less certain,however, is how successfully experts and bureaucrats can select our peer groupsand steer their activities in virtuous directions. It’s like the teacher whobreaks up the troublemakers in the back row by pairing them with better-behavedclassmates. The tactic never really works. And that’s the problem with a socialcure engineered from the outside: in the real world, as in school, we insist onchoosing our own friends.

21. According tothe first paragraph, peer pressure often emerges as

[A] a supplementto the social cure

[B] a stimulus togroup dynamics

[C] an obstacle toschool progress

[D] a cause ofundesirable behaviors

22. Rosenbergholds that public advocates should

[A] recruitprofessional advertisers

[B] learn fromadvertisers’ experience

[C] stay away fromcommercial advertisers

[D] recognize thelimitations of advertisements

23. In theauthor’s view, Rosenberg’s book fails to

[A] adequatelyprobe social and biological factors

[B] effectivelyevade the flaws of the social cure

[C] illustrate thefunctions of state funding

[D]produce along-lasting social effect

24. Paragraph5shows that our imitation of behaviors

[A] is harmful toour networks of friends

[B] will misleadbehavioral studies

[C] occurs withoutour realizing it

[D] can producenegative health habits

25. The authorsuggests in the last paragraph that the effect of peer pressure is

[A] harmful

[B] desirable

[C] profound

[D] questionable


A deal is adeal-except, apparently ,when Entergy is involved. The company, a major energysupplier in New England, provoked justified outrage in Vermont last week whenit announced it was reneging on a longstanding commitment to abide by thestrict nuclear regulations.

Instead, thecompany has done precisely what it had long promised it would not challenge theconstitutionality of Vermont’s rules in the federal court, as part of adesperate effort to keep its Vermont Yankee nuclear power plant running. It’s astunning move.

The conflict hasbeen surfacing since 2002, when the corporation bought Vermont’s only nuclearpower plant, an aging reactor in Vernon. As a condition of receiving stateapproval for the sale, the company agreed to seek permission from stateregulators to operate past 2012. In 2006, the state went a step further,requiring that any extension of the plant’s license be subject to Vermontlegislature’s approval. Then, too, the company went along.

Either Entergy neverreally intended to live by those commitments, or it simply didn’t foresee whatwould happen next. A string of accidents, including the partial collapse of acooling tower in 207 and the discovery of an underground pipe system leakage,raised serious questions about both Vermont Yankee’s safety and Entergy’smanagement- especially after the company made misleading statements about thepipe. Enraged by Entergy’s behavior, the Vermont Senate voted 26 to 4 last yearagainst allowing an extension.

Now the company issuddenly claiming that the 2002 agreement is invalid because of the 2006legislation, and that only the federal government has regulatory power overnuclear issues. The legal issues in the case are obscure: whereas the SupremeCourt has ruled that states do have some regulatory authority over nuclearpower, legal scholars say that Vermont case will offer a precedent-setting testof how far those powers extend. Certainly, there are valid concerns about thepatchwork regulations that could result if every state sets its own rules. Buthad Entergy kept its word, that debate would be beside the point.

The company seemsto have concluded that its reputation in Vermont is already so damaged that ithas noting left to lose by going to war with the state. But there should beconsequences. Permission to run a nuclear plant is a poblic trust. Entergy runs11 other reactors in the United States, including Pilgrim Nuclear station inPlymouth. Pledging to run Pilgrim safely, the company has applied for federalpermission to keep it open for another 20 years. But as the Nuclear RegulatoryCommission (NRC) reviews the company’s application, it should keep it mind whatpromises from Entergy are worth.

26. The phrase“reneging on”(Line 3.para.1) is closest in meaning to

[A] condemning.

[B] reaffirming.

[C] dishonoring.

[D] securing.

27. By enteringinto the 2002 agreement, Entergy intended to

[A] obtainprotection from Vermont regulators.

[B] seek favorfrom the federal legislature.

[C] acquire anextension of its business license .

[D] get permissionto purchase a power plant.

28. According toParagraph 4, Entergy seems to have problems with its

[A] managerialpractices.

[B] technicalinnovativeness.

[C] financialgoals.

[D] businessvision

29. In theauthor’s view, the Vermont case will test

[A] Entergy’scapacity to fulfill all its promises.

[B] the mature ofstates’ patchwork regulations.

[C] the federalauthority over nuclear issues .

[D] the limits ofstates’ power over nuclear issues.

30. It can beinferred from the last paragraph that

[A] Entergy’sbusiness elsewhere might be affected.

[B] the authorityof the NRC will be defied.

[C] Entergy willwithdraw its Plymouth application.

[D] Vermont’sreputation might be damaged.


In the idealizedversion of how science is done, facts about the world are waiting to beobserved and collected by objective researchers who use the scientific methodto carry out their work. But in the everyday practice of science, discoveryfrequently follows an ambiguous and complicated route. We aim to be objective,but we cannot escape the context of our unique life experience. Prior knowledgeand interest influence what we experience, what we think our experiences mean,and the subsequent actions we take. Opportunities for misinterpretation, error,and self-deception abound.

Consequently,discovery claims should be thought of as protoscience. Similar to newly stakedmining claims, they are full of potential. But it takes collective scrutiny andacceptance to transform a discovery claim into a mature discovery. This is thecredibility process, through which the individual researcher’s me, here, nowbecomes the community’s anyone, anywhere, anytime. Objective knowledge is the goal,not the starting point.

Once a discoveryclaim becomes public, the discoverer receives intellectual credit. But, unlikewith mining claims, the community takes control of what happens next. Withinthe complex social structure of the scientific community, researchers makediscoveries; editors and reviewers act as gatekeepers by controlling thepublication process; other scientists use the new finding to suit their ownpurposes; and finally, the public (including other scientists) receives the newdiscovery and possibly accompanying technology. As a discovery claim works itthrough the community, the interaction and confrontation between shared andcompeting beliefs about the science and the technology involved transforms anindividual’s discovery claim into the community’s credible discovery.

Two paradoxesexist throughout this credibility process. First, scientific work tends tofocus on some aspect of prevailing Knowledge that is viewed as incomplete orincorrect. Little reward accompanies duplication and confirmation of what isalready known and believed. The goal is new-search, not re-search. Notsurprisingly, newly published discovery claims and credible discoveries thatappear to be important and convincing will always be open to challenge and potentialmodification or refutation by future researchers. Second, novelty itselffrequently provokes disbelief. Nobel Laureate and physiologist AlbertAzent-Gyorgyi once described discovery as “seeing what everybody has seen andthinking what nobody has thought.” But thinking what nobody else has thoughtand telling others what they have missed may not change their views. Sometimesyears are required for truly novel discovery claims to be accepted andappreciated.

In the end,credibility “happens” to a discovery claim - a process that corresponds to whatphilosopher Annette Baier has described as the commons of the mind. “We reasontogether, challenge, revise, and complete each other’s reasoning and eachother’s conceptions of reason.”

31. According to thefirst paragraph, the process of discovery is characterized by its

[A] uncertaintyand complexity.

[B] misconceptionand deceptiveness.

[C] logicality andobjectivity.

[D] systematicnessand regularity.

32. It can beinferred from Paragraph 2 that credibility process requires

[A] strictinspection.

[B]shared efforts.

[C] individualwisdom.


33.Paragraph 3shows that a discovery claim becomes credible after it

[A] has attractedthe attention of the general public.

[B]has beenexamined by the scientific community.

[C] has receivedrecognition from editors and reviewers.

[D]has beenfrequently quoted by peer scientists.

34. AlbertSzent-Gy?rgyi would most likely agree that

[A] scientificclaims will survive challenges.

[B]discoveriestoday inspire future research.

[C] efforts tomake discoveries are justified.

[D]scientific workcalls for a critical mind.

35.Which of thefollowing would be the best title of the test?

[A] Novelty as anEngine of Scientific Development.

[B]CollectiveScrutiny in Scientific Discovery.

[C] Evolution ofCredibility in Doing Science.

[D]Challenge toCredibility at the Gate to Science.

Text 4

If the tradeunionist Jimmy Hoffa were alive today, he would probably represent civilservant. When Hoffa’s Teamsters were in their prime in 1960, only one in tenAmerican government workers belonged to a union; now 36% do. In 2009 the numberof unionists in America’s public sector passed that of their fellow members inthe private sector. In Britain, more than half of public-sector workers butonly about 15% of private-sector ones are unionized.

There are threereasons for the public-sector unions’ thriving. First, they can shut thingsdown without suffering much in the way of consequences. Second, they are mostlybright and well-educated. A quarter of America’s public-sector workers have auniversity degree. Third, they now dominate left-of-centre politics. Some oftheir ties go back a long way. Britain’s Labor Party, as its name implies, haslong been associated with trade unionism. Its current leader, Ed Miliband, oweshis position to votes from public-sector unions.

At the state leveltheir influence can be even more fearsome. Mark Baldassare of the Public PolicyInstitute of California points out that much of the state’s budget is patrolledby unions. The teachers’ unions keep an eye on schools, the CCPOA on prisonsand a variety of labor groups on health care.

In many richcountries average wages in the state sector are higher than in the private one.But the real gains come in benefits and work practices. Politicians haverepeatedly “backloaded” public-sector pay deals, keeping the pay increasesmodest but adding to holidays and especially pensions that are alreadygenerous.

Reform has beenvigorously opposed, perhaps most egregiously in education, where charterschools, academies and merit pay all faced drawn-out battles. Even though thereis plenty of evidence that the quality of the teachers is the most importantvariable, teachers’ unions have fought against getting rid of bad ones andpromoting good ones.

As the cost toeveryone else has become clearer, politicians have begun to clamp down. InWisconsin the unions have rallied thousands of supporters against Scott Walker,the hardline Republican governor. But many within the public sector sufferunder the current system, too.

John Donahue atHarvard’s Kennedy School points out that the norms of culture in Western civilservices suit those who want to stay put but is bad for high achievers. Theonly American public-sector workers who earn well above $250,000 a year areuniversity sports coaches and the president of the United States. Bankers’ fatpay packets have attracted much criticism, but a public-sector system that doesnot reward high achievers may be a much bigger problem for America.

36. It can belearned from the first paragraph that

[A] Teamstersstill have a large body of members.

[B] Jimmy Hoffaused to work as a civil servant.

[C] unions haveenlarged their public-sector membership.

[D]the governmenthas improved its relationship with unionists.

37. Which of thefollowing is true of Paragraph 2?

[A] Public-sectorunions are prudent in taking actions.

[B] Education isrequired for public-sector union membership.

[C] Labor Partyhas long been fighting against public-sector unions.

[D]Public-sectorunions seldom get in trouble for their actions.

38. It can belearned from Paragraph 4 that the income in the state sector is

[A] illegallysecured.

[B] indirectlyaugmented.

[C] excessivelyincreased.


39. The example ofthe unions in Wisconsin shows that unions

[A]often runagainst the current political system.

[B]can changepeople’s political attitudes.

[C]may be abarrier to public-sector reforms.

[D]are dominant inthe government.

40. John Donahue’sattitude towards the public-sector system is one of







In the followingtext, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 41-45, choose the mostsuitable one from the list A-G to fit into each of the numbered blanks. Thereare two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the blanks. Mark your answerson ANSWER SHEET1.(10 points)

Think of thosefleeting moments when you look out of an aeroplane window and realise that youare flying, higher than a bird. Now think of your laptop, thinner than abrown-paper envelope, or your cellphone in the palm of your hand. Take a momentor two to wonder at those marvels. You are the lucky inheritor of a dream cometrue.

The second half ofthe 20th century saw a collection of geniuses, warriors, entrepreneurs andvisionaries labour to create a fabulous machine that could function as atypewriter and printing press, studio and theatre, paintbrush and gallery,piano and radio, the mail as well as the mail carrier. (41)

The networkedcomputer is an amazing device, the first media machine that serves as the modeof production, means of distribution, site of reception, and place of praiseand critique. The computer is the 21st century's culture machine.

But for all thereasons there are to celebrate the computer, we must also tread with caution.(42)I call it a secret war for two reasons. First, most people do not realisethat there are strong commercial agendas at work to keep them in passiveconsumption mode. Second, the majority of people who use networked computers toupload are not even aware of the significance of what they are doing.

All animalsdownload, but only a few upload. Beavers build dams and birds make nests. Yetfor the most part, the animal kingdom moves through the world downloading.Humans are unique in their capacity to not only make tools but then turn aroundand use them to create superfluous material goods - paintings, sculpture andarchitecture - and superfluous experiences - music, literature, religion andphilosophy. (43)

For all thepossibilities of our new culture machines, most people are still stuck indownload mode. Even after the advent of widespread social media, a pyramid ofproduction remains, with a small number of people uploading material, aslightly larger group commenting on or modifying that content, and a huge percentageremaining content to just consume. (44)

Television is aone-way tap flowing into our homes. The hardest task that television asks ofanyone is to turn the power off after he has turned it on.

(45)What counts asmeaningful uploading? My definition revolves around the concept of"stickiness" - creations and experiences to which others adhere.

[A] Of course, itis precisely these superfluous things that define human culture and ultimatelywhat it is to be human. Downloading and consuming culture requires greatskills, but failing to move beyond downloading is to strip oneself of adefining constituent of humanity.

[B] Applicationslike tumblr.com, which allow users to combine pictures, words and other mediain creative ways and then share them, have the potential to add stickiness byamusing, entertaining and enlightening others.

[C] Not only didthey develop such a device but by the turn of the millennium they had alsomanaged to embed it in a worldwide system accessed by billions of people everyday.

[D] This isbecause the networked computer has sparked a secret war between downloading anduploading - between passive consumption and active creation - whose outcomewill shape our collective future in ways we can only begin to imagine.

[E] The challengethe computer mounts to television thus bears little similarity to one formatbeing replaced by another in the manner of record players being replaced by CDplayers.

[F] One reason forthe persistence of this pyramid of production is that for the pasthalf-century, much of the world's media culture has been defined by a singlemedium - television - and television is defined by downloading.

[G]The networkedcomputer offers the first chance in 50 years to reverse the flow, to encouragethoughtful downloading and, even more importantly, meaningful uploading.

Part C


Read the followingtext carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Yourtranslation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (10 points)

Since the days ofAristotle, a search for universal principles has characterized the scientificenterprise. In some ways, this quest for commonalities defines science.Newton’s laws of motion and Darwinian evolution each bind a host of differentphenomena into a single explicatory frame work.

(46)In physics,one approach takes this impulse for unification to its extreme, and seeks atheory of everything-a single generative equation for all we see.It is becomingless clear, however, that such a theory would be a simplification, given thedimensions and universes that it might entail, nonetheless, unification ofsorts remains a major goal.

This tendency inthe natural sciences has long been evident in the social sciences too.(47)Here, Darwinism seems to offer justification for it all humans share commonorigins it seems reasonable to suppose that cultural diversity could also betraced to more constrained beginnings. Just as the bewildering variety of humancourtship rituals might all be considered forms of sexual selection, perhapsthe world’s languages, music, social and religious customs and even history aregoverned by universal features. (48)To filter out what is unique from what isshared might enable us to understand how complex cultural behavior arose andwhat guides it in evolutionary or cognitive terms.

That, at least, isthe hope. But a comparative study of linguistic traits published online todaysupplies a reality check. Russell Gray at the University of Auckland and hiscolleagues consider the evolution of grammars in the light of two previousattempts to find universality in language.

The most famous ofthese efforts was initiated by Noam Chomsky, who suggested that humans are bornwith an innate language-acquisition capacity that dictates a universal grammar.A few generative rules are then sufficient to unfold the entire fundamentalstructure of a language, which is why children can learn it so quickly.

(49)The second, byJoshua Greenberg, takes a more empirical approach to universality identifyingtraits (particularly in word order) shared by many language which areconsidered to represent biases that result from cognitive constraints

Gray and hiscolleagues have put them to the test by examining four family trees thatbetween them represent more than 2,000 languages.(50)Chomsky’s grammar shouldshow patterns of language change that are independent of the family tree or thepathway tracked through it. Whereas Greenbergian universality predicts strongco-dependencies between particular types of word-order relations. Neither ofthese patterns is borne out by the analysis, suggesting that the structures ofthe languages are lire age-specific and not governed by universals

Section IIIWriting

Part A


Someinternationals students are coming to your university. Write them an email inthe name of the Students’ Union to

1) extend yourwelcome and

2) provide somesuggestions for their campus life here.

You should writeabout 100 words on ANSWER SHEET2.Do not sign your name at the end of theletter. Use “Li Ming” instead.

Do not write theaddress(10 points)

Part B

52. Directions:write an essay of 160-200 words based on the following drawing. In your essayyou should

1) describe thedrawing briefly

2) explain itsintended meaning, and

3) give yourcomments

You should writeneatly on ANSWER SHEET2.(20 points)



【解析】从空后信息可以看出,这句表达的是"_ _法官表现得像政治家"的情况下,法庭就不能保持其作为法律法规的合法卫士的形象,所以应该选C,maintain"维持,保持",其他显然语义不通。






【解析】空前信息显示,法官出席政治活动会让法院的审判收到影响,人们就会认为其审判不公正,所以选Dbe accepted as..."被认为是"


【解析】空所在的语境为:产生这样的问题,部分原因在于"法官没有_ _道德规范"。后一句话说,至少法院应该遵守行为规范,这显然是进一步说明上一句话。所以上一句是说法官没有受到道德规范的约束,选Cbound




【解析】分析句子结构可知,这里是由that引导的定语从句修饰说明前面的行为规范,是说法院也应当遵守适用于其他联邦司法部的行为规范。apply to "适用于"符合题意。resort to "求助于";stick to "坚持(原则等)"语意不通。




【解析】根据第8题可知,空内应填line"界限" barrier "障碍"similarity"相似性"conflict"冲突"都不合题意。


【解析】根据句意,宪法的起草者们预想的是将司法从政治中分出来,让其享有独立的权力。envision as "想象成…"。所以选B




【解析】此题承接上题,可知法律不受政治的影响,从而法官也不用担心掌权者(those in power)


【解析】此题承接上题, 结合句意, 可知该半句主要表达"法官也无需政治支持了。"选项C最符题意。






【解析】此题考察词意辨析。首先分析该句,可知空白处添加上一动词可构成一定语从句,限定"the law"。其次,文中语境表达"当法律处理社会政策决策问题时,。。。的法律不可避免的具有政治性。四个选项中,[C]为最佳答案。







accessible to 易接近的;可归属的;可得到的可归因的

amiable to可亲,多指人和蔼可亲,易于接近

agreeable to欣然同意的;适合的,适宜的

accountable to负责

此题的理解需承接整个句, 首先此空所在后半句乃一方式状语,承接前半句说明法官怎样来解决有关法庭(裁决的)公正合理的质疑。将此四个选项分别代入,可得出正确答案[D],法官只有对对行为准则负责,也即是遵循一定的行为准则才可确保其裁决的公正与合理。


【解析】此题考察逻辑搭配。此句承接上句,旨在说明由此带来的结果,也即是文中所说的"。。。使得裁决看起来完全不受政治的影响,如法律一般令人信服。" 结合四个选项意思,可知选[D]

Section IIReading Comprehension

Part A

Text 1


【解析】文章首段包含了两方面的内容,作者先简单介绍Peer pressure,再引出Tina Rosenberg在她的新书Join the Club中对于peer pressure的看法,这篇文章是以一篇书评的形式出现。而题目"根据第一段,同伴压力的出现常常是…"问的仅仅是同伴压力,并无涉及到Tina Rosenberg或者她的新书,因此答案则应主要涉及文章对于peerpressure的介绍,而非Tina对于peerpressure的看法。首段第三句说"(同伴压力)通常引起不好的事情,如酗酒,嗑药,乱交",故答案选D,说明同伴压力出现导致的结果,这里的答案使用了同义替换的方式。


【解析】根据题干关键词"public-healthadvocates"可以定位到第三段最后一句话"Rosenberg arguesconvincingly that public-health advocates ought to take a page fromadvertisers, so skilled at applying peer pressure",即应该向广告商学习,这里主要是对于短语"take a page from"的理解,答案选B


【解析】根据题干"在作者看来,Rosenberg的书没能…",所选答案是要找出作者看来这本书的缺点是什么。文章第四段第一句话说"但是,在方面,Rosenberg不太有说服力",紧接着说"Join the Club中太多无关的细节,而对于使同伴压力能产生如此大作用的社会和生物因素并未做足够的探究",这句话充分说明了在作者心目中这本书的不足在哪儿,故答案选A


【解析】这是一道细节题。文章第五段首句告诉我们peer groups确实会对行为产生很大的影响,第二句具体说明影响的内容,即好的习惯和不好的习惯都会通过社会交际在朋友圈中传递,最后一句则对这种影响进行了总结,"这是同伴压力的细微表现,我们无意识地模仿日常所见到的行为"。而分析题干和选项,我们发现该题是对"imitation of behavior"进行归纳,回到原文,找到"我们无意识地模仿日常所见到的行为",答案即刻清晰,这里是对unconsciously一词进行了释义,因此C选项正确。


【解析】这道题考查作者对于peerpressure所能带来的影响的态度,作者通过最后一段第一句话首先向我们表明他对"专家和其他官方人员是否能成功选择同伴来引导他们的行为朝好的方向发展"的不肯定,接下来以教师指导学生的例子为说明,得出结论"Thetactic never really works."(这个策略从来没有真正起作用)。通过作者的这样一番描述,可以看出,作者对于peer pressure是否能有效果是质疑的,故答案选D




reneging 的原形是renege,本议是"食言""否认"之意,为反向意义词。而四个选项中A 中的condemning 意为"谴责""处刑"B中的reaffirming 意为"重申""再肯定,再断言"C中的dishonoring的意为"拒付,不兑付",在意思和方向上都符合,Dsecuring 意为"保证,使保险"的含义。本文主要在说Entergy这个公司不兑现自己的诺言,所以应选C项。



本题答案定位在文中第三段每二句话,Asa condition of receiving state approval for the sale , the company agreed toseek permission from state regulators to operate past 2012. "as acondition of"可以理解为"为了"D 项中的"purchase "一词就是对文中"sale"的替换。



题干:"根据第四段Entergy公司似乎在它的····上存在着问题",题目中已清晰把答案范围确定在第四段,通过阅读第四段我们可以看到Entergy公司出现了一系列的事故"a string of accidents",而后面的这句"raisedserious questions about both Vermont Yankee's safety and Entergy'smanagement"就是本题的答案所在了。其中 "managerial""management"仍是同一单词的变形。



首先从题干知道考查的是作者的观点。 "佛蒙特州事件"will test在文章中的定位是在第5段第5句话,"Vermontcase will offer a precedent-setting test of how far those powers extend"意思是"佛蒙特州事件将会检验是这些权利延伸多远的先例"。这句话是legal scholars的观点。重点是理解certainlybut后面的意思。虽然作者承认担忧如果每个周各行其是的后果是合理的,但是But后面是个虚拟语气,与事实相反。所以作者的真正态度是支持legal scholars的观点,即佛蒙特州事件是对州法规的权限的考验。How farthose power extendedD选项的thelimits of states' power与选项D"各州在核问题上的权限"是相匹配的,因此正确答案为D。其他选项与"佛蒙特州事件"带来的检验,文中并未直接提及。



最后一段主要讲的是"Entergy公司的名誉已严重受创。该公司向联邦申请:许可Pilgrim核电站获得另外20年的开放权。但是作者认为,核管理委员会在审核该公司的申请的时候,务必要考虑下该公司的信誉问题。"A选项"Entergy公司在其它地方的生意将会受到影响"由最后一段的第一句话"Entergy公司的名誉已严重受创"就可以推断出来;B"核管理委员会的权威将会被藐视"最后一段没给出任何要藐视核管理委员会的暗含信息,因此B选项错误;C "Entergy公司将会撤回关于Pilgrim核电站的申请",最后一段同样没给出类似的暗含信息;D "Vermont的名声将会受到破坏" 同样,从最后一段,根本无法推断出。因此,最佳答案是A




这篇文章选自TheScientist,文章题目是The Evolution of Credibility。文章第一段第二句话提到"But in the everyday practice of science, discovery frequentlyfollows an ambiguous and complicated route.",即在每天的科学实践中,发现所遵循的规律是模棱两可和复杂的。Auncertainty and complexity 是对文中ambiguous and complicated的同义替换,所以为正确答案。

B项是利用文中最后一句话的干扰"Opportunities for misinterpretation, error, and self-deceptionabound",这句话是说"有误解和自我欺骗的可能",从而导致了科学发现的模棱两可和复杂性;C项和D项是受文章第一句话的干扰,但是第一句同时提出只有"在理想中(in the idealized version of ...),科学发现才能够很客观。



第二段第二句中提到"Butit takes collective scrutiny and acceptance to...",其中it指的是将科学发现获得公众可信度的过程。接下来的第四句话具体讲到了这个过程:"throughwhich the individual researcher's me, here, now becomes the community's anyone,anywhere, anytime.",即要经历从个人到集体的过程,需要每个人共同的努力,故答案为B



本段第三句话中提到"Withinthe complex social structure of the scientific community, researchers makediscoveries",即"研究者需要在科学团体复杂的社会结构中实现科学发现",在这句话的后面有一个分号,分号后面的三个短句分别解释了在科学团体中不同身份的人所做的不同工作,如新闻编辑者和评论家需要控制科学发现公开的过程,而另外一些科学家需要同过新的发现来证明已有的发现等。除此之外,最后一句话"transforman individual's discovery claim into the community's credible discovery"即将个人的发现转换为集体可信的科学发现,故答案为B,即科学发现获得公众的可信度需要集体的努力和验证。




第四段主要讲到了科学发现获得大众可信度的过程中面临的两个矛盾。Albert Szent-Gyorygi的观点主要针对第二个矛盾,即创新本身经常会引起怀疑。同时他认为科学发现需要"seeing what everybody has seen and thinking what nobody hasthought",即看到每个人都已经看到的,并想到别人没有想到的。这句话暗示了科学发现的过程需要有评判性思维,即我们应该去探求事物。故答案为D




此题考察对全文主旨大意的准确归纳。从整个文章脉络来看,文章第一段指出任何发现最终的目标是使之客观化,然而此过程或多或少会受到不同的生活环境的影响;第二段指出这个过程需要公众共同的努力;第三段具体论述了不同的人在这个过程中需要完成的工作;第四段则提出了使科学发现获得可信度的过程中所遇到的两个矛盾;最后一段用Annette Baier的一句话总结了这个过程。由此可知,C项统领全文,为正确答案。答案A项与原文不符;答案B 是第二段中提到的一部分;而答案D只是对第四段的概括

Text 4



根据题干定位于第一段When…were in their prime in 1960, only one in ten American government workersbelonged to a union; now 36% do. 意思是1960年时,美国政府部门只有1/10的人是工会成员,但是现在比例是36%。所以C选项正确:工会增加了政府部门成员。A选项:Teamster 仍然拥有很多成员。文中只提到了比例,并没有讲具体人数;B:吉米过去是一个公仆。而文中第一句是一个虚拟语气的句子,"如果他还活着的话,他今天可能代表一名公仆",曲解文意;D:政府改善了与社团的关系。文中并未提及。



该题很容易根据题干定位于第二段。第二段中有很明显的first, second, third这些词,属于典型的列举处,最容易出细节题。只需要将各选项与这三点仔细比对即可。A 公共部门组织在采取行动时很谨慎文中并示提及,是对"they nowdominate left-of-centre politics"这句话设置的干扰项,"左派"为激进派,不可能谨慎;B错在教育不是需要的,而是公务员社团成员受教育程度普遍偏高,并非必需;C工党长期与公务员社团争斗,该段倒数第二句指出工会与社团一直有联系,最后一句讲到工会领导Miliband荣登宝座正是因为公务员社团的大力支持,因此与原文相悖;D选项为First, they can shut things down without suffering much in the wayof consequences.这句话的同义改写。意思是"他们可以息事宁人并不用遭受不好的后果"



该题很容易定位于文章的第四段。题干是"国家部门人员的工资状况是"。做这道题要把第四段整体理解。注意But后面的内容,尤其是keeping the pay increases modest but adding to holidays andespecially pensions that are already generous。大意是公共部门员工的工资涨幅很小,但是节假日福利津贴很多。B选项的indirectly augment意思是"间接地增加"。和原文意思"公有部门人员的收入是来源于福利等间接收入,而非正常的工资收入"符合。A 通过非法得来文中只提到了国家部门人员的工资比私人企业的要高,整段都未提及来源,故该选项属于过度推理;C 过度地增长文中并未提及增长的幅度,提到只是通过"暗厢操作"的方式,容易使考生产生误解;D 很公正地调整与"backloaded"不符。



题干的意思是"举威斯康辛社团为例,表明社团_______"。该题根据题干中的专有名词Wisconsin定位于倒数第二段。由题干可知这是一个例证题,所以需要看文章的第五段。第五段首句Reform has been vigorously opposed。从第六段Wisconsin的例子可以看出,工会集合众人反对共和党领导人Scott Walker,正是为了反对改革。所以可以知道工会可能是公共部门改革的一个障碍,C为正确选项。A 经常与当前政治体系对抗文中并未反映often这个程度。B 能够改变人们的政治态度文中并示提及,D 在政府中占统治地位文中第二句讲到社团得到了成千上万人的支持来对付强硬的共和党州长,并不能推出该选项之意。




Part B


【解析】略读第一自然段得知这篇文章的主题是科技给人们的生活带来的便利,重点论述了媒介。此题空在末尾,那么通读空前的内容,可以找到特征词或者中心词"creat a fabulous machine"浏览七个选项,C项中的"develop such a device"刚好与此对应




【解析】此题空在段末,因此要在空前以及下一自然段的段首找关联词,浏览空前可以找到"superfluous material goods" ,而浏览下一自然段的句首可找到"download"这个词;那么浏览七个选项,答案A出现了"these superfluous things",接下来也提及到了"download",因此可以锁定答案A.


【解析】此题空在句末,所以需要浏览下空前以前下一个自然段的句首,通读空前的内容可以找到关联词"a pyramid of production remains,",而下一个自然段的段首提到了"television",那么浏览七个选项,跟此关联的有两项EF,再继续分析,E项只有"television"这个词与空后对应,而F项不仅出现了"television"这个词,而且出现了"this pyramid of production"这个特征词,所以,答案为F.


【解析】此题空在段末,那么需要浏览下空前的句子,寻找关联词,在BG之间进行选择,通读可知,空前的"flow"G项的"the flow"是相对应的,B项的"applications"在文中没有提及,所以此题锁定答案G

Part C

46. 【解析】本句结构比较简单,它是一个简单句,句子主干结构是one approach takes…and seeks…。破折号后面的部分是对前面提到的理论的进一步解释。

1)take …toextreme………发挥到极致,把。。。推至极限

2)theory ofeverything万有理论。或者也可以一个短语翻译出来"适用于任何事物的理论"

3)generative equation生成等式、生成方程。



47. 【解析】对本句话的理解关键在于对for引导的句子的正确理解。因为有两个逗号,有的同学在考场比较紧急的时间和紧张的状态下容易把两个逗号间的部分理解为插入语,那么这句话就很难理解了。

1)for 引导的句子表原因与前句是并列关系,for原因并列句中又包含一个if引导的条件状语从句

2)"it seemsreasonable to suppose that"对这句话的翻译可以翻译成一个长句,也可以分开翻译成"那么假设文化差异也能够追溯到更有限的源头, 这种假设看上去便是合理的了。"

3)对于 "cultural diversit"的理解,我们容易受到之前在备考中经常遇到的"cultural diversity"的影响,直接翻译成"文化多样性",但在本文,前文很多次提到了共性,所以这里我们翻译为"文化差异"更合适。


48. 【解析】这句话结构主要在于对三个"what"从句的理解。本题是三个what引导的从句第一个是what引导的宾语从句,做filter out 的宾语。第二个what是介词from的宾语,from 是固定搭配中的介词filter out A from B。第三个whatunderstand的宾语,和how并列

1)句子主干可以看做:To filter out A from B enables us to understand C and D

A指的是"what is contingent and unique"

B指的是"what is shared" how complex cultural behaviourarose"

C指的是"how complex cultural behaviour arose"

D指的是"what guides it in evolutionary or cognitive terms"

2)Filter out词组本意是滤掉,。这个单词可能有同学会不熟悉,但是如果对本句结构理解清楚,看到from这个介词,加之对前文大意的理解,我们可以猜出这个词的意思,或者理解为"区分"等也不影响全句的理解。以避免我们有的同学看到第一个单词不认识立马生出的胆怯情绪,影响下文判断。


49. 【解析】本句结构比较明朗,关键是句子前部分单独很难理解,需要结合前文。这也恰恰说明了考研英语中的翻译首先是阅读理解的一部分,不是单独的翻译而已。

1)这里的the second与上文的"The most famous of theseefforts was initiated by Noam Chomsky,",所里这里应该翻译成"第二种理论"所以这句话需要根据上下文和逻辑解释清楚。而不能单纯的翻译成第二。。。



50. 【解析】这句话的结构比较简单,复杂的是其中大量的术语和不熟悉的词汇。对于这些词汇我们根据直译即可。

本句结构:Chomsky'sgrammar should show…, whereas Greenbergian….



3)co-dependencies 这个词需要根据上下词义加之词根词缀来猜测出词义,因为下文指出是两者关系,所以可以翻译为"共存性"


Section IIIWriting



Dear internationalstudents,

I am the chairmanof the Students' Union. I've just received the emails from you and got the newsthat you will come to our university. Firstly, I'd like to show our warmwelcome. On behalf of our university and all the students here, I really lookforward to your coming.

In order to makeall of you feel at home, here are some conductive suggestions. Firstly, you'dbetter take some warm clothes with you because it is winter in China now and itis very cold in Beijing. Secondly, I advise you to prepare some relevantknowledge about Chinese culture for better understanding in class.

I really hope you'llfind these proposals useful. And I'm looking forward to your coming!

Yours sincerely,

Li Ming



As can be clearlyseen from the vivid picture, in front of a toppled bottel of which most waterin it has flowed out, a man says "there is none left , how unlucky Iam" looking rather upset, while another man quickly picked this bottle up,saying "I'm such a lucky dog, there is still some left". How vividthe cartoon it is! The two men show quite different perspectives toward thesame situation.

The implicationconveyed in this cartoon is that different perspectives we take to examproblems we confront lead to different attitutes or answers to these problems.In the first place, we'll find the problem is very difficult to handle from thepessimistic perspective. However, if we change our way of observing problems,we may find that we can make some remedial work even to turn something bad intogood. In this way, we can find solutions for any difficulties. Every coin hastwo sides. So why not change an angel to observe the problem we encounter?

Whenever we facewith the situation like the cartoon,what we should do is to observe itpositively, especially when we are experiencing and encountering setbacks, onlyif we have the optimistic attitude, can we be bound to live a life of happiness